2017-2018 Season Calendar
|Summer Season 2018|
3 Mondays at 7:30 PM
The summer concerts will be held
|Monday, June 4,
7:30pm Austro-German Gems I
Christ and Saint Stephen’s Episcopal Church
120 West 69th Street (east of Broadway)
Joseph KREUTZER Grand Trio in A Major Op. 16 • date not known
Very little is known about Kreutzer, who wrote mostly chamber music and instructive pieces for bowed strings and guitar. He was also a conductor, violinist, and guitarist. Kreutzer was born in Aachen in 1790 to a music teacher. Moving to Düsseldorf around 1805, he established himself among the leading musicians of the city. Records indicate that he taught the composer Norbert Burgmüller and was concertmaster at the local theater. He died in Düsseldorf in 1840. Although he was born 20 years after Beethoven, his music harks back to the Classical era, having the easy fluency of Mozart’s music.
SCHUBERT String Quartet No. 11 in E Major D. 353 • 1816
Franz LACHNER String Quintet in C minor Op. 121 • 1834
The Bavarian composer’s work was much admired: Mendelssohn was fascinated by it and Schumann called Lachner the most talented composer in southern Germany; Tchaikovsky also felt that Lachner had to be placed near the pinnacle of fine composers. Wilhelm Altmann, in his Handbook for Chamber Music Players, commented on the Quintet with 2 cellos, stating that “It cannot be denied that there is a certain greatness about it. The main theme to the opening movement...has a pleading, almost tragic quality to it. The music is superbly developed and even at one point has a magnificent fugal section. The whole thing is quite effective.” Among his pupils was Josef Rheinberger, who completed his music education with a course under Lachner at the conservatory in Munich, and who later taught Ferdinand Thieriot.
| Monday, June 25,
7:30pm Vive la France
Christ and Saint Stephen’s Episcopal Church
120 West 69th Street (east of Broadway)
André-Frédéric ELER Horn Quartet Op. 1 • date not known
George ONSLOW String Quintet No. 30 in E minor Op. 74 • 1847
Late in life, at the age of 64, Saint-Saëns wrote his first String Quartet, which he dedicated to the violin virtuoso, Eugène Ysaÿe, who premiered it at the Concerts Colonne on 21 December 1899.
|Monday, July 16,
7:30pm Austro-German Gems II
Christ and Saint Stephen’s Episcopal Church
120 West 69th Street (east of Broadway)
Sigismond NEUKOMM “Schöne Minka” Quintet Op. 8 • 1809 Famous during the first half of the 19th century, Neukomm’s importance is as a transitional figure between Classicism and Romanticism. He was a prolific composer, his oeuvre comprising some 1300 works. Born in Salzburg, Neukomm studied with Joseph Haydn for 7 years in Vienna, beginning in March 1797. His arrangements of numerous works by Haydn were for the most part sanctioned by the composer. They included The Creation, Il Ritorno di Tobia, The Seasons, and Arianna a Naxos. Between mid-November 1808 and February 1809 he visited Haydn every day.
Ferdinand THIERIOT (1838-1919) String Sextet in D Major The North German composer, cellist, teacher, and choral conductor was a pupil of Eduard Marxsen, who also taught Brahms in Hamburg, and of Josef Rheinberger in Munich. He performed as a soloist and as a member of several prominent string quartets. Brahms became a friend and recommended him for the position of Artistic Director of the Steiermärkischer Musikverein in Graz (1870-1885). After World War II, Thieriot’s archive (including the manuscripts) was taken to Leningrad, where the String Sextet was rescued when it was found floating in a flooded basement.
BRAHMS String Quintet No. 1 in F Major “Spring” Op. 88 • 1882
Famous during the first half of the 19th century, Neukomm’s importance is as a transitional figure between Classicism and Romanticism. He was a prolific composer, his oeuvre comprising some 1300 works. Born in Salzburg, Neukomm studied with Joseph Haydn for 7 years in Vienna, beginning in March 1797. His arrangements of numerous works by Haydn were for the most part sanctioned by the composer. They included The Creation, Il Ritorno di Tobia, The Seasons, and Arianna a Naxos. Between mid-November 1808 and February 1809 he visited Haydn every day.
Ferdinand THIERIOT (1838-1919) String Sextet in D Major
The North German composer, cellist, teacher, and choral conductor was a pupil of Eduard Marxsen, who also taught Brahms in Hamburg, and of Josef Rheinberger in Munich. He performed as a soloist and as a member of several prominent string quartets. Brahms became a friend and recommended him for the position of Artistic Director of the Steiermärkischer Musikverein in Graz (1870-1885). After World War II, Thieriot’s archive (including the manuscripts) was taken to Leningrad, where the String Sextet was rescued when it was found floating in a flooded basement.
BRAHMS String Quintet No. 1 in F Major “Spring” Op. 88 • 1882
|2018 - 2019|
20-concert series: Mondays at 2pm and 7:30pm
|September 17 Beauty & Seduction
MOZART Piano Quintet in Eb Major K. 452 • 1784
SCHUBERT Adagio and Rondo Concertante in F Major D. 487 • 1816
Peteris VASKS The Fruit of Silence • 2013
Arnold SCHOENBERG Verklärte Nacht “Transfigured Night” Op. 4 • 1899
In 1949, Schoenberg said, “I can really contend that I owe very, very much to Mozart.... And I am proud of it!” In background notes on Mozart’s influence on Schoenberg at the Schönberg Center in Vienna, Therese Muxeneder wrote, “The special exhibition addresses Arnold Schönberg’s stylistic career in the footsteps of Viennese Classicism as well as his artistically and theoretically diverse reflection on the Viennese fathers. The importance of Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven for his own work and teaching can be impressively demonstrated in numerous documents from the estate. They also provide insights into Schönberg’s compositional style, which is juxtaposed with that of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.”
| September 24 2001 • Remembering Jens Nygaard
TCHAIKOVSKY Herbstlied “Autumn Song” • 1876
Igor STRAVINSKY Three Pieces for Solo Clarinet • 1919
Clarinetist Charles Russo, who played under Stravinsky and discussed the piece with him, believed the composer intended the work as a stylistic bridge between the Rite of Spring and his later work. It was dedicated to Werner Reinhart, the Swiss patron of the arts who had bankrolled L’histoire du Soldat.
TCHAIKOVSKY String Quartet in Bb Major Op. post. • 1865
Mikhail GLINKA Serenata sopra alcuni motivi dell’opera “Anna Bolena” • 1832
Glinka attended the premiere of Anna Bolena in Milan on 26 December 1830, during his 3-year sojourn in Italy. The tragic opera, which tells the story of Henry VIII’s notorious second wife, Anne Boleyn, in an embellished, romanticized way, was Donizetti’s first major hit and marked a turning point in his career. Glinka’s own reaction, according to a diary entry, was one of “rapture.” His skillful working of Donizetti’s tunes, which includes a bold piano part and interplay between the other instruments, gave rise to this rhapsodic, operatic overture.
TCHAIKOVSKY Adagio molto in Eb Major • 1863 or 1864
Anton ARENSKY Piano Trio in D minor Op. 32 • 1894
A pupil of Rimsky-Korsakov at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, Arensky graduated with a gold medal, then became one of the youngest professors ever to teach at the Moscow Conservatory. The Trio was written as a memorial to his (and Tchaikovsky’s) friend, the cellist Karl Davidoff, who had been director of the St. Petersburg Conservatory when Arensky was a student there. Davidoff, who died in 1889, is considered the founder of the Russian school of cello playing, and Arensky’s dedication is reflected in the cello’s prominence in the Trio. Among Arensky’s pupils were Alexander Scriabin, Reinhold Glière, and Rachmaninoff. He died at age 44 from tuberculosis, most likely exacerbated by his drinking.
| October 8 Otherwordly
Ignace PLEYEL Nocturne No. 1 in C Major B. 215 • 1787
Pleyel was not only famous in his day as a piano builder and music publisher, he was equally acclaimed as a composer. Mozart praised the Austrian-born French composer’s merits in a letter to his father: “If you are not yet acquainted with Pleyel’s new quartets, it’s worth the effort. They are very well written and very pleasant. Perhaps one day Pleyel will be able to fill the place of our dear Haydn.” Initially a rival of Haydn’s, Pleyel made his peace with the older composer and for several years they enjoyed a close and fruitful relationship as teacher and pupil.
Bohuslav MARTINU Fantaisie H. 301 • 1944
The Czech composer of Modern classical music studied briefly at the Prague Conservatory before being dismissed for “incorrigible negligence,” after which he continued to study on his own. He went Paris in 1923, living there until France capitulated to Nazi Germany in 1940, when he fled, first to the south of France, and then to the United States in 1941, settling in New York with his French wife. He was commissioned by Lucie Bigelow Rosen to write a piece for theremin and began the task during the summer of 1944, completing the Fantaisie on the 1st of October. Rosen performed the premiere as theremin soloist in New York on 3 November 1945 with the Koutzen Quartet, oboist Robert Boom, and Carlos Salzedo at the piano.
The theremin—one of the world’s first electronic instruments—was invented by the Russian scientist Léon Theremin in 1919. It consists of two radio frequency oscillators and two metal loop antennas. Electric signals from the instrument are amplified and sent to a loudspeaker; the instrument, untouched by the performer’s hands, thus generates unusual and unexpected musical sounds and effects.
Gabriel FAURÉ Piano Quintet No. 1 in D minor Op. 89 • 1905
Attempts at the Quintet date from as early as 1887, and after a long and troublesome development, it was finally completed toward the end of 1905. Dedicated to Eugène Ysaÿe, its premiere was performed in Brussels on 23 March 1906 by the Ysaÿe Quartet with Blanche Selva at the piano. Fauré was Saint-Saëns’s devoted and most famous student. The prominent critic Harold Schonberg described him as having “the essence of everything Gallic—form, grace, wit, logic, individuality, urbanity...those who love the music of Fauré love it as a private, cherished gift from one of the gentlest and most subtle of composers.
| October 22 From Nordic Lands
Erkki MELARTIN String Trio Op. 133 • 1927
Overshadowed by Sibelius, Melartin (1875-1937) was a prolific composer, as well as a conductor, philosopher, mystic, naturalist, painter, linguist, and an influential teacher. His style ranged from late Romanticism to restrained Expressionism, in an individual voice. While his most important works are his six symphonies, he is most remembered for his lyric pieces, including salon music, which brought him greatest popularity. In the early decades of the 20th century he introduced Finnish audiences to the music of Mahler, Strauss, and other contemporary composers.
Franz BERWALD Grand Septet in Bb Major • 1828
Berwald, born in Stockholm in 1796 to a long line of musicians, is considered Sweden’s foremost composer, the founder of Romanticism in Sweden, and its first important symphonist. He was, however, unable to earn a living as a musician, and became a successful orthopedic surgeon in 1835 and in 1850 he took over the management of a glass factory, then launched a saw mill, and was also active as a polemicist from about 1856. He began composing again after his move to Vienna in 1841, the 1840s being his most productive musical years. In 1866, at the age of 70, he was finally acknowledged for his musical achievements with the award of the Swedish Order of the Polar Star, but it was not until the 20th century that his work became more widely recognized.
Jean SIBELIUS Piano Quintet in G minor • 1889-1890
The Quintet was written during a year of private study in Berlin, following his graduation from the Helsinki Music Institute. The premiere of its first and third movements was performed by none other than the great Italian pianist Ferruccio Busoni (his teacher and lifelong friend) and the Norwegian composer and violinist Johan Halvorsen, both of whom were impressed with the Quintet.
| October 29 Tapping Tapas
Manuel Braulio CANALES String Quartet in D Major Op. 3 No. 1 • 1782
The extensive use of sharply contrasting dynamics as an expressive device and the 4-movement structure point to the influence of Haydn (most of the other composers were still using the 3-movement form of the Mannheim school). Boccherini’s music, which he also encountered in Madrid, is said to be of some influence; and there is the influence of Spanish dance music as well, as evident in the Largo assai. Born in Toledo in 1747, Canales studied music with Jaime Casellas, director of the Toledo Cathedral Choir. He sang and danced in certain cathedrals as one of 6 choir boys, and later excelled as a cellist and bassist. In 1770, he moved to Madrid to work for the Duke of Alba. After his protector died in 1776, Canales returned to Toledo, where he worked as an assistant director at the Cathedral. He died in 1786 at the age of 39.
Manuel de FALLA El amor brujo: Pantomime and Ritual Fire Dance • 1915
Based on a story of love, death, exorcism, and release, the heroine of the ballet is an Andalusian gypsy woman named Candelas. In the most famous movement—Danza ritual del fuego—the village holds a ritual fire dance, wherein Candelas dances an exorcism to rid herself of the ghost and its powers. The music distills native folk music to its most elemental components, and has moments of remarkable beauty and originality. Falla, born in Cádiz, is the most distinguished Spanish composer of the early 20th century, his music representing the spirit of Spain at its purest.
Luigi BOCCHERINI Musica Notturna delle Strade di Madrid G. 324 • 1782
Boccherini was born into a musical family in Lucca, Italy, spent some time in Vienna and Paris, and from 1769 lived and worked in Spain. In 1770 he was appointed to the service of the Infante Don Luis as composer and performer. When Don Luis married an Aragonese aristocrat (in effect, a commoner) in 1776, King Charles III, fearful of his brother, found cause to banish the Infante to Las Arenas palace in Avila. Boccherini went with him and composed more than 100 works, including the Musica Notturna, in rural seclusion. The Quintet was famous in Spain during Boccherini’s life, but it was not published until years after his death as he had told his publisher, “The piece is absolutely useless, even ridiculous, outside Spain, because the audience cannot hope to understand its significance, nor the performers to play it as it should be played.”
Rodion SHCHEDRIN In the Style of Albeniz • 1973
As the music critic Jay Nordlinger so knowingly explained in the National Review, “Shchedrin is one of those people with a huge appetite for music, music of every period, and of every type. And his own music reflects an awareness, and absorption, of the past. He is not trying to invent the wheel; he knows he stands on shoulders.”
Shchedrin is recognized as one of Russia’s greatest living composers, and has won numerous awards, including the 1972 USSR State Prize, the 1984 Lenin Prize, and the 1992 State Prize of the Russian Federation. He was also honored with a membership in the Berlin Academy of Arts in 1989. In 1958 he married Maya Plisetskaya of the Bolshoi Ballet and wrote several ballets for her. Among his other compositions are symphonies, operas, concertos, chamber and instrumental music, and choral and vocal music. Shchedrin is a virtuoso pianist and organist as well.
Joaquín TURINA Piano Quintet in G minor Op. 1 • 1907
Born in Seville, Turina lived in Paris from 1905 to 1914. He studied at the Schola Cantorum— piano with Moritz Moszkowski and composition with Vincent d’Indy, whose teacher was Cesar Franck. After the Quintet’s première he went to a cafe with his good friends Falla and Isaac Albéniz, both of whom persuaded him to write in a more consciously Spanish style. The meeting led to a new kind of nationalism in Spanish music— as Turina put it, “We were three Spaniards gathered together in that corner of Paris and it was our duty to fight bravely for the national music of our country.” The Quintet won a prize in the Salon d’Automne, judged by a jury comprising Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray, Louis Bruneau, Fauré, d’Indy, Lucien Magnard, Octave Maus, Armand Parent, and Gabriel Pierné.
| November 12 Making America Great
Paul CHIHARA Ellington Fantasy • 1982
The Seattle native, born in 1938, studied with Nadia Boulanger in Paris and with Gunther Schuller at Tanglewood. He studied film music at his childhood hometown movie matinees, soaking up film noir, westerns, and musicals. With Toru Takemitsu, Chihara was composer-in-residence at the Marlboro Festival in 1971. His 25-year Hollywood career began in 1974 when he composed the music for Roger Corman’s Death Race 2000. Since then he has written scores for more than 90 films and television series, working with such directors as Sidney Lumet and Arthur Penn. Active on Broadway and in the ballet world as well, he also composes prize-winning concert works. Chihara is currently on the faculty at New York University.
Paul SCHOENFIELD Trio • 1990
Concocted with elements from the rich and varied traditions of klezmer, Eastern European folk, and gypsy music, the composition results in surprises elicited by their interactions. As the Jewish composer himself has said, this “is not the kind of music for relaxation, but the kind that makes people sweat; not only the performer, but the audience.”
Schoenfield, from Detroit, began playing the piano at age six and wrote his first composition the following year in 1954. Among his teachers was Rudolf Serkin. He was formerly a concert pianist, touring the United States, Europe, and South America as a soloist and with ensembles including Musicians from Marlboro. His compositions, which have been widely recorded, have drawn an expanding group of devoted fans. He has also lived on a kibbutz in Israel, and is a scholar of the Talmud and of mathematics. Currently, he holds the position of Professor of Composition at the University of Michigan.
James MOROSS Piano Quintet • 1964
Steven C. Smith gives the background of Moross and the Quintet: “The legacy of Jerome Moross (1913-1983) may confound those who prefer their composers more neatly pigeonholed in style and musical genre; but the numerous paths Moross followed—ranging from early atonal concert music to film scores to television to Broadway—have left less pedantic admirers a bounty of eclectic gems. For Moross, music was music, whether it was written for a string quartet, a pit theater orchestra, or tailored to a filmmaker’s vision. Moross never condescended to cinema.... But despite some recognition (including a 1959 Oscar nomination for The Big Country), Moross found Hollywood hostile turf for an independent composer, and his visits became increasingly rare. The movies’ loss was concert music’s gain. One happy intersection of these two media is a concert piece derived from a film Moross scored in 1964. The Piano Quintet, based on his music for the little-known short, Forget Me Not, is among its composer’s most charming later works; its evocation of remembered loss (the film chronicles a widower’s memories of his wife) is treated not as tragedy but as simple celebration. Moross introduced his chief, song-like theme immediately, exploring it in a series of gentle variations scored with elegant intimacy, and shaped by a propulsive lyricism that characterizes much of Moross’s most appealing work. Presented here in its concert incarnation...the Piano Quintet—like the Forget Me Not from which it flowered—is a moving testament to the power of memory.”
Paul WIANCKO America Haiku • 2014
Wiancko has led a multifaceted life as a cellist, composer, and collaborator. Winner of the 2018 S&R Foundation Washington Award for Composition, the Japanese-American’s music has been described as “dazzling” and “compelling” by the Star Tribune, and “surprising, fun, fresh, and innovative” by Sequenza21. Wiancko has composed works for the award-winning Aizuri and Parker Quartets, Metropolitan Opera soprano Susanna Phillips, cellist Judith Serkin, violist Ayane Kozasa, yMusic, cellist Gabriel Cabezas, the Boston Cello Quartet, Bargemusic, and many others, and has been the composer-in-residence at the Caramoor, Twickenham, Newburyport, and Methow Valley Chamber Music Festivals.
Arthur FOOTE Piano Quintet in A minor Op. 38 • 1897
A native of the witch city of Salem, Foote was the first important American composer educated entirely in America. In 1873 he graduated at age 21 with the first master’s degree in music awarded by an American university—Harvard—where he studied fugue and counterpoint with John Knowles Paine. From Paine, he gained an admiration for and was influenced by the leading European Romantic composers of the day, including Mendelssohn, Schumann, Dvo?ák, and Brahms. The Quintet integrates this legacy with Foote’s wealth of melodic invention and his idiomatic keyboard writing. Its premiere was performed by Foote at the piano and the Kneisel Quartet, its dedicatee. The reviewer of the Transcript commented, “The form is so clear, the development so natural, so inevitable-seeming, the writing so brilliant and vivacious; then the fertility of the melodic invention and resource the composer shows, the warm glow and charm of his second themes, all these elements combine to make the work a continuous inspiration to the listener.”
|November 19 “Eastern” Mosaic
Franz and Karl DOPPLER “Souvenir de Prague” Op. 24 • n.d.
Born in Lemberg, Poland, Franz and his brother Karl were taught by their father, Joseph, who was a composer and oboist. Franz made his debut in Vienna at the age of 13 and became famous as a virtuoso flutist touring Europe with Karl, giving duo recitals before both became prominent members of Hungarian orchestras. Franz first joined the German Theatre from 1838, then the Hungarian National Theatre from 1841. He composed a German opera and several Hungarian operas that were produced at the Theatre, all with appreciable success. In 1853, together with Karl and others, they founded the Hungarian Philharmonic Orchestra, and the brothers also resumed their concert tours throughout Europe.
George ENESCU Pastorale, menuet triste et nocturne • 1900
Dedicated to the Veniel sisters (Marie, Geneviève, and Fernande), the trio was written for the Parisian receptions to which Enescu was often invited. He began composing in 1886 at age 5, and at age 7 he became the youngest student ever admitted to the Vienna Conservatory. At age 10 he met his idol, Brahms, and played his Symphony No. 1 under the composer’s baton. Enescu went to Paris in 1895 to continue his studies that included composition with Massenet and Fauré, whose influence can be heard in the trio.
Antonín DVORÁK Serenade B.15bis • 1867
Sergei PROKOFIEV Overture on Hebrew Themes • 1919
Prokofiev had a close relationship with the Bolsheviks before the Russian Revolution of 1917, but he went abroad, living in New York and Paris during most of the early years of the Soviet Union, and by the time he returned in 1935 he found cultural life under monitor—the Composers Union was formed to police the likes of Prokofiev and his more outspoken contemporary Shostakovich for alleged “formalist tendencies” considered to be intellectually elitist and anti-Soviet. Further, any freedom they may have had ended with the 1948 Zhdanov Decree, aimed at suppressing artistic self-expression. Prokofiev was now viewed as “anti-democratic” and much of his music was banned. Many concert and theater administrators refused to program his music, fearful of the consequences of supporting an artist denounced by the regime. He suffered censorship until his death in 1953.
BRAHMS Hungarian Dances • 1859
Arno BABADJANIAN Piano Trio in F# minor • 1952
One of the Soviet Union’s foremost pianists, Babadjanian composed music that was in the Russian tradition, but also contained echoes of Armenian folk songs as well as the sounds of his contemporaries—Khachaturian, Rachmaninoff, Shostakovich, and Prokofiev. A dramatic first movement is followed by a gorgeous, poignant Andante, and the Trio concludes with a rhythmic Allegro vivace. Its premiere was performed in 1953 by violinist David Oistrakh, cellist Sergey Knushevitsky, and the composer at the piano.
| December 3 Made in Vienna
Karl WEIGL 5 Songs Op. 40 • 1934
Weigl was born in Vienna in 1881 to a Jewish bank official and keen amateur musician. After private lessons with Alexander Zemlinsky and schooling at the Franz-Joseph Gymnasium, he studied at the Vienna Music Academy where his composition teacher was Robert Fuchs, then at the University of Vienna where his classmate was Anton Webern. From 1904 to 1906, he worked under Mahler as solo performance coach. His only opera, Der Rattenfänger von Hameln, premiered in Vienna in 1932. When the Nazis occupied Austria in 1938, Weigl emigrated to the United States, together with his second wife, Valerie (Vally), and their son. His 11 years of exile were difficult even though he obtained a number of increasingly important teaching positions: at the Hartt School of Music, Brooklyn College, Boston Conservatory, and the Philadelphia Academy of Music. Weigl died in New York in 1949.
SCHUMANN Kinderszenen “Scenes of Childhood” Op. 15 • 1838
In March 1838 Schumann wrote to his fiancée Clara Wieck: “I have been waiting for your letter and in the meantime I have been composing a whole book of pieces—wild, wondrous and solemn.... You once said to me that I often seem like a child, and I suddenly got inspired and knocked off around 30 quaint little pieces.... I selected twelve and called them Kinderszenen. You will enjoy them, although you will need to forget you are a virtuoso when you play them.”
Schumann’s five-year courtship with Clara was fraught with challenges (primarily stemming from her father’s objections to the match) that included lawsuits and court battles, his banishment from the Wieck home, and a seven-month separation in 1838 because of Clara’s concert tour. It was during this time apart that Schumann went to Vienna with hopes of establishing himself as a journalist through Die Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, a music magazine he had cofounded with his teacher and future father-in-law Friedrich Wieck in Leipzig—his intent was to continue editing the paper under the auspices of a Vienna publishing firm. His efforts, however, came to naught. Despite this setback, Schumann’s stay in Vienna had its bright moments—he went to the opera and theater; made friends including Mozart’s son Franz Xaver Wolfgang; visited the city’s sights, especially the graves of Beethoven and Schubert; and obtained Schubert’s compositions from his brother Ferdinand, which resulted in the publication and performance of the Symphony in C by the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra a few months later. Not least of all, Schumann composed obsessively. Before leaving Vienna in April 1939, he had completed several compositions, including the Kinderszenen.
SCHUBERT “Salve Regina” D. 676 • 1819
As an essential component of the Compline service, the hymn has been set to music by various composers; Schubert wrote no less than 4 versions.
Schubert was Viennese through and through. He was born in Himmelpfortgrund, a district of Vienna, he lived much of his life in the city, and he died there. When he was away from Vienna, he would soon miss it. He would pine for his beloved Vienna and its life, his friends, and the theaters and cafes.
BRAHMS Piano Trio in Bb Major • 1883
A letter that Brahms wrote to his publisher Fritz Simrock, dated 18 March 1883, reveals his comments on Kirchner’s arrangements of his 2 String Sextets: “The Trios give me extraordinary pleasure! If it was your idea, then I must congratulate you, but Kirchner has done a remarkable job.” Although essentially forgotten, Kirchner was Brahms’s close friend, from their first meeting in 1865 until Brahms’s death in 1897. He was also Schumann’s protégé, Mendelssohn’s pupil, Wagner’s accompanist, Dvo?ák’s arranger, dedicatee of Reger’s second Violin Sonata, Clara Schumann’s lover (a brief, discreet, unhappy liaison in the early 1860s), and the would-be lover of the poet and writer Mathilde Wesendonck (she was immortalized by Wagner’s “Wesendonck Songs”). Kirchner was universally admired as a marvelous musician—a celebrated pianist, organist, and composer in his own right—but he could not maintain a job or marriage, and his gambling and extravagance led to destitution in his later years, so much so that his publisher and friends, including Brahms, bailed him out of debt.
Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna, beginning in 1863 until his death in 1897. Brahms met Robert and Clara Schumann in 1853, and the three became lifelong close friends.
| December 17 Romanticism : 3 Ways
Carl Maria von WEBER Clarinet Quintet Op. 34 • 1815
Robert FUCHS Piano Trio No. 3 in F# minor Op. 115 • 1926
Born in the Austrian state of Styria in 1847 to a musical family, Fuchs moved to Vienna in 1865 to study under Anton Bruckner, Felix Otto Dessoff, and Joseph Hellmesberger. Ten years later he joined the faculty at the Vienna Conservatory, teaching there for 37 years—harmony, at first, then theory and counterpoint. Among his pupils were Mahler, Sibelius, Richard Strauss, George Enescu, Erich Wolfgang Korngold, Franz Schmidt, Franz Schreker, Hugo Wolf, and Alexander Zemlinsky. The New Grove Dictionary notes that Brahms “gave him early encouragement as a composer and introduced him to Simrock. Brahms thought highly of his work, being particularly impressed by the Symphony No.1 in C, for which Fuchs was awarded the Beethoven prize in composition by the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in 1886.” Other admirers included the conductors Arthur Nikisch, Felix Weingartner, and Hans Richter, all of whom championed his works. When he died in 1927, a few days after his 80th birthday, he was given a grave of honor in the Central Cemetery in Vienna.
Max BRUCH Piano Quintet in G minor • 1886
| January 7 Salute to 3 Knights
Sir Donald Francis TOVEY Variations on a Theme by Gluck • 1913
Jens Nygaard highly respected Tovey and presented 2 “All-Tovey” concerts at CAMI Hall, in 1973 and 1975. They were open to the public but attended mostly by critics. At Good Shepherd Church, he gave 3 performances each of Tovey’s Piano Concerto with Makiko Hirata and Tovey’s Cello Concerto with Joel Krosnick, his student and former cellist of the Juilliard String Quartet. The program of the 1975 concert at CAMI Hall bears Jens’s tribute: “This concert is gratefully and lovingly dedicated to the greatest of all my teachers—Sir Donald Francis Tovey. I wish that I could have known him personally.”
Sir Arthur SOMERVILL Clarinet Quintet in G Major • 1919
Best known for several song cycles, the “English Schumann” was also Sir Hubert Parry’s student, but he first “studied composition with Charles Villiers Stanford [in 1881] at Cambridge University.... Subsequently, on Stanford’s recommendation, he went to Berlin where he continued his studies with Friedrich Kiel, who had taught Stanford, and Woldemar Bargiel, who became a close friend of Brahms by virtue of being Clara Schumann’s younger half brother. [It was upon returning to London in 1885 that Somervell studied with Parry for two years at the Royal College of Music, then privately for another two years.] Somervell pursued a dual career of composer and teacher, serving as a professor at the Royal College of Music in London [Edition Silvertrust].”
Sir Hubert PARRY Piano Quartet in Ab Major • 1879
While most good Englishmen know Parry’s choral song, Jerusalem, few are familiar with his fine Piano Quartet with its vivacious scherzo and heartfelt Andante movement. Musicologist Lewis Foreman, in calling it an “early masterpiece,” accounts for this lapse: “...this is a case in point when it is difficult for us today to appreciate how modern this must have sounded when it was first performed. When it was given at a Monday Popular Concert in December 1883 it had a thin audience, critics clearly seeing an avant garde work frightening them away. The Musical Times excused Parry by writing ‘No fault can attach to him for adhesion to the modern school of writing if, as there is no reason to doubt, his principles are sincere. The composer from whom he has obtained most of his inspiration in the present instance is undoubtedly Brahms, but in some respects he has gone beyond his model.... Mr Parry merges subjects and details together with irritating persistence...[and] is not afraid to obey the dictates of his own inner consciousness....’”
Parry’s importance is noted by the New Grove Dictionary: “Combining these three activities [as composer, scholar, and teacher] with a forceful personality and social position, he exercised a revitalizing influence on English musical life at a time in the 19th century when standards of composition, performance, criticism and education were low.” Born in 1848, Parry obtained a Mus.B. degree while still at Eton, then read law and modern history at Oxford at his father’s behest. From 1870 to 1877 he worked for Lloyd’s register of shipping as an underwriter, at the same time continuing his musical studies. Finding the insurance industry totally unsuitable, he turned to music full time. In the 1890s he became director of the Royal College of Music and was appointed Professor of Music at Oxford. His many students included Gustav Holst, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Frank Bridge, and John Ireland. Parry is the subject of a documentary film presented by Prince Charles and directed by John Bridcut: The Prince and the Composer. It was broadcast on BBC4 in 2011.
| January 21 Women’s Jewels
Anna Amalia VON BRUNSWICK-WOLFENBÜTTEL Divertimento in Bb Major • circa 1780
Emilie MAYER Notturno in D minor • 1883
Mélanie BONIS Scènes de la forêt Op. 123 • 1928
Laura Valborg AULIN String Quartet No. 1 in F Major Op. 17c • 1884
Luise Adolpha LE BEAU Piano Trio in D minor Op.15 • 1882
| February 4 Lieber Leipzig
MOZART “Kegelstatt” Trio K. 498 • 1786
During his journey to Berlin in 1789, Mozart made a detour to Leipzig twice. He arrived on 20 April and stayed for 3 days. On the 22nd, he visited the Thomaskirche (where Bach was its most famous cantor from 1723 till his death in 1750) and played the organ for an hour, assisted by Cantor Doles and the organist Karl Görner, both manipulating the stops. In his honor, the choir of the Thomasschule performed “Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied” by Bach. Delighted with the motet, Mozart copied the choir parts after perusing the autographs. He then went to Potsdam and returned to Leipzig on 8 May. This time, Mozart presented a concert of his own compositions at the Leipzig Gewandhaus on 12 May. The concert, however, had not been widely publicized and was a financial fiasco as it was poorly attended. In a letter to his wife Constanza he reported, “From the point of view of applause and glory this concert was absolutely magnificent, but the profits were wretchedly meager.” He also gave various excuses for lingering in Leipzig, but finally left for Berlin on 17 May.
Friedrich GERNSHEIM String Quartet No. 2 in A minor Op. 31 • 187
The Chamber Music Journal affirms the German composer’s high standing among the critics of his day: “No less an authority than Wilhelm Altmann...writes in his Handbuch für Streichquartettspieler that Gernsheim’s quartets are poetic and of a high intellectual content... that Brahms had considerable respect and admiration for Gernsheim’s work. An accolade which was, in Brahms’ case, no mere flattery as Brahms only very rarely praised the works of other composers.” Born in Worms, Gernsheim studied at the Leipzig Conservatory, where his teachers were Ignaz Moscheles and Ferdinand David. He then spent several years in Paris, studying piano with Antoine Marmontel, and where he met Lalo, Saint-Saëns, Rossini, Rubinstein, and Liszt. Professionally, he held academic and conducting positions in Cologne, Rotterdam, and Berlin. Gernsheim’s earlier works show the influence of Schumann, and from 1868, when he met Brahms, a Brahmsian influence is palpable. Although the two were not close friends, they carried on a correspondence for many years.
SCHUMANN Piano Trio No. 2 in F Major Op. 80 • 1847
Schumann spent much of his life in Leipzig, a stimulating cultural city that influenced his work. He studied law at the University of Leipzig, and piano with his future father-in-law Friedrich Wieck, whose daughter Clara he met when she was just 9 years old. They married in 1840 when she turned 21. In 1843, the Leipzig Conservatory was established with Mendelssohn as director and Schumann as professor of “piano playing, composition, and playing from the score.” He was, however, unsuited to the work and left Leipzig for Dresden, where he lived with Clara from late 1844 to 1850.
| February 18 French Treats
François-Joseph GOSSEC Flute Quartet No. 1 in D Major Op. 14 • 1770 • (1734-1829)
Ambroise THOMAS String Quartet in E minor Op. 1 • 18**
Gabriel FAURÉ La bonne chanson Op. 61 • 1898
Claude DEBUSSY Piano Trio in G Major • 1879
| March 4 2 Geniuses
Erich Wolfgang KORNGOLD Piano Trio in D Major Op. 1 • 1910
Written in the highly expressive language of the Viennese fin de siècle after two years of study with Alexander Zemlinsky, the lyrical tunes in a thoroughly modern harmonic language also show evidence of the traditions of Brahms and Strauss. The premiere in Vienna was performed by the already famous Bruno Walter, Arnold Rosé (concertmaster of the Vienna Philharmonic for more than 50 years), and cellist Friedrich Buxbaum (of the Vienna Philharmonic and Vienna State Opera). Korngold was born in Moravia, educated in Vienna, and achieved success as a composer of opera and concert music throughout Europe. Upon leaving Nazi Germany, he made a name for himself in Hollywood, and was a pioneer in the development of the classical Hollywood film score, providing music for at least 16 movie scores, two of which won Oscars.
SCHUBERT Octet in F Major D. 803 • 1824
| March 18 Germans at Home & Abroad
BEETHOVEN Piano Quartet in D Major WoO 36 No. 2 • 1785
Joseph Martin KRAUS Flute Quintet in D Major Op. 7 • 1783
Adolf BUSCH Duo No. 1 Op. 26 • published 1926
MENDELSSOHN Piano Trio No. 1 in D minor Op. 49 • 1839
| March 25 Czech Medley
Joseph FIALA (1748-1816) Bassoon Quartet No. 3 in F Major • n.d.
Bed?ich SMETENA Z domoviny “From the Homeland” JB 1:118 • 1880
Josef Bohuslav “J B” FOERSTER Nonet Op. 147 • 1931
Antonín DVORÁK Piano Trio No. 2 in G minor Op. 26 • 1876
| April 8 Batons at Rest
Arturo TOSCANINI 2 Songs • 1885
George SZELL Piano Quintet in E Major Op. 2 • 1911
Dmitri MITROPOULOS “Kassiani” • 1919
Jens NYGAARD Cadenza for Mozart Piano Concerto No. 24 in C minor K. 491 • 1996
Felix WEINGARTNER Octet in G Major Op. 73 • 1925
| April 15 Virtuoso Pianist-Composers
Ferruccio BUSONI Suite in G minor • between 1879 and 1881
Moritz MOSZKOWSKI Suite in G minor Op. 71 • 1903
Anton RUBINSTEIN Piano Quintet in G minor Op. 99 • 1876
| April 29 The Kreutzer Connection
Rodolphe KREUTZER Trio in F Major • circa 1803
BEETHOVEN Piano Trio No. 2 in G Major Op. 1 No. 2 • 1794-1795
MENDELSSOHN String Quintet No. 1 in A Major Op. 18 • 1826
| May 13 German Giants
BEETHOVEN Mödlinger Tänze WoO 17 • 1819
Richard STRAUSS Metamorphosen Op. 142 • 1945
BRAHMS Piano Quartet No. 1 in G minor Op. 25 • 1861
*All programs are subject to change.
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Last updated 7/16/18